The following case studies describe re-engineering of small programs in Fortran, Ada, and Cobol.

The Evolution of Fortran (The quadratic equation in Fortran I, a Fortran 77, and a Fortran 90/95)

Julian Dates (Gregorian to Julian conversion implemented in Fortran, Ada, Cobol, C and Python)

Wind Chill Factor (Wind chill factor in Fortran, Ada, Cobol, and C)


The briefs below discuss some of the programming issues related to programming in Cobol, Ada, and Fortran.

A brief guide to strings in Ada



The pracniques below work through programming problems in Cobol, Ada, and Fortran.

Re-engineering a vintage Fortran program (1966) to calculate the value of π. PI:design  PI:code

Day of Year.
Re-engineering a F77 program that calculates the Day of Year (DOY). DOY:design  DOY:code

Prime Numbers
Re-engineering a legacy Fortran program to calculate prime numbers. PRIME:design  PRIME:code

Roman Numerals
Re-engineering a legacy Fortran program to calculate Roman numerals. ROMAN:design  ROMAN:code

Easter Sundays
Re-engineering a Cobol program from 1962 which calculates the date of Easter Sunday. EASTER: design&code


Deck Flex : A Fortran program to calculate the flexural deflection in a deck, given a particular material. Design&Code

Escape Velocity : An Ada program to calculate the escape velocity from the surface of a moon or planet. Design

Ice Thickness : An Ada program to calculate ice thickness. Design

Luhn’s Algorithm : An Ada program to perform Luhn’s Algorithm to validate a number. Design

Typing Monkey : An Ada program to simulate the Typing Monkey problem. Design

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