My choices (not in any particular order):
- Pascal (academic) – Designed as a teaching language. It uses a real assignment operator (see rant elsewhere), has strong type safety, is well structured, and is somewhat English-based, e.g. begin end.
- Julia (scientific) – Benefits of Python (ease of learning), speed of C.
- Fortran (scientific) – F90/95+ Simple control structures, good data types, and subroutines with easy parameter passing. No necessity for novices to learn about pointers.
- Python (industrial) – A good interpreted language.
- Swift (industrial) – The latest version of the C-like family of languages, although better evolved.